KVH Industries, Inc., has introduced its new CG-5100 inertial measurement unit (IMU), which combines KVH fiber optic gyros (FOGs) and microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers to measure roll, pitch, and yaw angular rates and accelerations.
The CG-5100 is designed for stabilization, navigation, and autonomous vehicle applications requiring precision position, velocity, and attitude sensing capabilities, dependable backup for GPS in dynamic conditions or when GPS is unavailable.
The strap-down inertial subsystem offers six-degrees-of-freedom measurement and a roll/pitch/yaw bias of ±1 degree per hour, 1 sigma, according to the company.
The acceleration accuracy for an x/y/z input range of up to ±10 g includes a bias zero offset maximum f ±50 mg, scale factor error of 4,000 pppm (1 sigma), and a frequency response of 50 Hertz.
The CG-5100 achieves employs proprietary algorithms to a fully combined digital gyro and accelerometer output, enabling the system to characterize and correct for the effects of temperature and misalignment, according to KVH. It also offers an adaptable output in a fully digital, user-selectable RS-232/RS-422 format.
KVH Industries, Inc., Middletown, Rhode Island, USA
• 134 • GNSS Simulators
The Aeroflex GPSG-1000 portable GPS/Galileo simulator supports civil and military avionics field and bench maintenance technicians, production test technicians, and system integrators with a capability to work with L1, C/A code and L1C, L2C, L5 GPS modernization signals, as well as new Galileo E1, E5, E6 services.
It can be configured for single-channel, 6-channel, or 12-channel simulation. Typical tests include acquisition sensitivity, tracking sensitivity, time-to-first-fix for cold/warm/hot starts, time-to-second-fix, positional accuracy, RAIM failure tolerance, and subsystem stimulation for 3D flight execution.
The six-channel GPSG-1000 configuration provides 3D positional simulation with five channels for receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) operation and one channel dedicated to SBAS, WAAS, or EGNOS simulation.
Simulated 3D positions may be entered by users in latitude/longitude/height format or 3D position may be dynamically simulated using a 50-leg waypoint entry scheme. A built-in GPS receiver allows positional simulation in the form of a range, heading and altitude offset from current test set position.
Aeroflex Incorporated, Plainview, New York, USA,
• 132 • GNSS Receivers
Trimble introduced its new Trimble BD970, a real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS receiver for high-precision and control application, at the ION GNSS 2009 show in September.
Capable of receiving a wide range of commercially available satellite signals, the BD970 receiver is designed to allow OEMs and system integrators to easily add centimeter-level positioning to specialized or custom hardware solutions.
The BD970 GNSS receiver module is a 220-channel, multi-frequency GNSS receiver in a compact form factor. It supports a wide range of satellite signals, including GPS L1/L2/L5 and GLONASS L1/L2 signals.
In addition, the company says it is committed to providing Galileo-compatible products in advance of Galileo system availability. In support of this goal, the Trimble BD970 GNSS receiver is capable of tracking the experimental Galileo GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B test satellites for signal evaluation and test purposes.
Flexible connectivity options—Ethernet, RS232, USB, or CAN — allow fast data transfer and easy configuration via standard Web browsers. The BD970 provides on-board multipath migration, low-elevation tracking technology, and faster RTK initialization.
• 131 • Antennas
PCTEL, Inc., offers the Medallion GPS multi-band antenna platform, whichs covers the GPS L1 band (1575.42 MHz) as well as 806-960MHz 1710-2170MHz, and 2.3-2.6GHz
• 130 • GNSS Simulators
LabSat from Racelogic Ltd. is an L1 GPS simulator with RF record and playback capabilities, ruggedized for use in the field to record all-in-view GPS satellite signals in a digital form that can then be replayed at a later date. Measuring 170 x 128 x 38 millimeters, LabSat comes with a carrying case, GPS magnetic aerial, and a 260GB Freecom external hard drive for recording data. The system can then reproduce the real world data — including such artifacts as multipath, ionospheric effects, and signal dropouts —on the bench. During data collection, LabSat is connected to a laptop and data is continuously streamed to the hard disk. Approximately 1 GB of data is stored for every 10 minutes of use, with no limit on the length of the sample. When replaying, the same data is streamed from the laptop to LabSat at the same rate. The output signal level is adjustable, from -75dBm to -105dBm.
• 129 • GNSS Receivers
Septentrio offers the PolaRx3G GNSS receiver, featuring 66 hardware channels that can track all-in-view GPS and Galileo reception of the L1 and L5/E5a signals (including GIOVE-A, GIOVE-B). Additionally PolaRx3G can receive satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) channels and features an optional built-in memory card for data storage. The PolaRx3G has a user-selectable raw data output (code, carrier, SBAS navigation data) rate of up to 20 Hz and optional pulse-per-second PPS output (x = 1, 2, 5, 10). The receiver’s fast acquisition unit (FAU) incorporates thousands of parallel correlators and reportedly brings the acquisition time of Galileo signals from minutes to less than two seconds. PolaRx3G is integrated in a waterproof IP65 rugged enclosure measuring 285 x 140 x 37 millimeters and weighing 930 grams (in its housing). Input voltage can use 9-30 VDC.
• 128 • GNSS Receivers
Trimble has introduced the postage stamp–sized Resolution SMT, a 12-channel parallel tracking, embeddable GPS receiver in a surface mount packaged designed to provide precise GPS or UTC time and synchronization for many static timing applications. Measuring 2.54 (height) x 19 x 19 millimeters in tape and reel packaging for high-volume manufacturing, the Resolution SMT features an extended temperature range (–40/+85 °C) 1 PPS (or even-second) output synchronized to GPS or UTC within 15 nanoseconds (1 sigma), timing–receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (T-RAIM), and automatic self-survey capability.
• 127 • GNSS Chipsets
CellGuide has introduced the RAMON, a 5.4 x 4.6 x 1.1–millimeter GPS module, containing the company’s ACLYS chip and an RF chain, which together with its associated host-based software, is targeted at mass-market device manufacturers. According to CellGuide, RAMON requires only three external passive components and input from the host’s TCXO for full GPS operation, both autonomously and in assisted-GPS (AGPS) mode with -160 dBm sensitivity. A power-management design reduces power consumption to less than 10 milliwatts in tracking mode and 20 microwatts in standby mode. A 16-channel L1 C/A-code receiver, the RAMON has a reported tracking sensitivity of –160 dBm and acquisition sensitivity of –155 dBm (aided) to –147 dBm (autonomous). The L1 RF front-end receives the RF signal from a GPS antenna, and outputs raw data to the internal GPS co-processor, which then processes it and sends the output to the CellGuide software located on the host CPU. The CellGuide software outputs a standard NMEA string. Host requirements include a digital signal processor or ARM 9-, 9E- or 11E-based processor such as the Freescale MX, Marvell XScale, NEC MP series, Samsung S3C24XX or S3C64XX, SH-Mobile, or TI DSP and OMAP. CellGuide Ltd., Rehovot, Israel.
• 126 • GNSS Receivers
OnPOZ offers the SubX 16-channel GPS box with built-in satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS — WAAS or EGNOS) capability providing two-meter (circular error probable) real-time positioning and sub-meter postprocessed accuracy (code and carrier phase). Measuring 4.7 x 2.6 x 1.6 inches (12.0 x 6.5 x 4.0 centimeters) and weighing 0.67 lb. (0.3 kilogram), the water resistant SubX operates with a 1-hertz update rate for up to 24 hours in low-power mode (GPS receiver and antenna) and 18 hours in high-power mode (GPS, antenna and Bluetooth) using a rechargeable lithium-ion 7.4-volt battery. Multiple connectors — serial, USB and Bluetooth — provide flexible data communication links. The SubX box comes with a 27 dB gain antenna (size 48 x 40 x 13 millimeters). Options include EZSurv post-processing software, EZField survey data collection software, and a geodetic antenna and cable for higher accuracy.
• 125 • Antennas
Maxtena offers its RadioMax M1575CQA GPS quadrifilar antenna. Its compact size and ground–plane independence is designed to simplify integration into handsets. The M1575CQA directly connects to an RF transceiver chip without baluns or matching networks. RadioMax technology reduces currents that are driven onto the ground plane, making the antenna more resistant to the effects of human exposure (for better performance in handsets). According to the company, RadioMax provides efficiency of 38 percent (total spherical) and gain of -1.3 dBic. The beamwidth (3dB) is 140 degrees (both axes) and bandwidth is 10 MHz (1570.42–1580.42 MHz). Cross Pole rejection is 15 dB; axial ratio, 0.2 dB; front to back ratio, 15 dB; VSWR 1.3: 1; and impedance (differential) 100 Ohms. Overall dimensions are 10 millimeters (diameter) by 20 millimeters (length). The Maxtena FilterMax technology is available if more out-of-band rejection of undesired signals is needed. Maxtena, Inc., Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
• 123 • GNSS Receivers
Hemisphere GPS offers the dual-frequency R220 GPS receiver, a 39-channel that offers real-time kinematic (RTK) operation with 12 channels of L1 C/A code, 12 channels of L1 P-code, and 12 channels of L2 P-code tracking. The other three channels can be used for tracking satellite-based augmentation systems including OmniSTAR’s commercial HP and XP differential correction services or three additional channels of L1 C/A-code tracking. The unit measurements are: height, 45 millimeters (1.77 inches), width 114 millimeters (4.49 inches), length 160 millimeters (6.3 inches), and weight 0.54 kilgrams (1.19 pounds). The unit is intended for professional mapping, guidance, machine control, and navigation applications. Integrated L-Band tracking powers down when not in use, and OmniSTAR subscriber access permits remote activation via satellite. The R220 incorporates Hemisphere GPS’s COAST technology, which maintains accurate solutions for 40 minutes or more after loss of a differential signal, according to the company. A position output rate of 10 Hz is standard but up to 20 times per second is available, as is raw GPS data output. The unit uses a standard USB Flash drive for data logging. Hemisphere GPS, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
• 124 • GNSS-Related Hardware
Quellan offers a GPS Noise Cancellation Starter Pack for its QHx220 RF noise canceller, an IC is incorporated into a handset to cancel electromagnetic interference (EMI) and improve signal integrity. Typical applications are a sensitive GPS receiver co-located with a GSM/CDMA transmitter or a GPS system corrupted by digital noise. The QHx220 reduces EMI by taking the sampled interference source as an input and filtering the sampled signal to emulate and subse¬quently remove the incurred interference on the received victim signal. The QHx220 is composed of a channel emulator (CE) and two low noise amplifiers (LNAs) in the sampling path. The CE provides phase shift and attenuation to tune out the unwanted noise at the correction point. The LNAs pro¬vide the appropriate signal level to the channel emulator. Both the CE and the LNAs are controlled via an SPI bus. The QHx220 is designed in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process requiring a single 1.8V power supply with a typical power consumption of less than 20mW. Ultra small (less than one square millimeter) QHx220 devices are available in a wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) or in 3x3mm quad flat no-lead (QFN) packages. The starter kit includes two GPS noise detectors, two QHx220 evaluation boards, two USB to SPI interposer boards, two power/SPI cables, six SMA/Hirose cables, basic I-Q control software, and a user guide. Quellan Inc., Santa Clara, California, USA.
• 122 • GNSS Receivers
u-blox has released a new low-voltage GPS module — the NEO 5D. Operating at 1.8 volts, the module require 40 percent or more less power compared to its predecessors in the 50-channel u-blox 5 engine product line: 72 mw @ 1.8V in the “Eco” mode and 77 mW @ 1.8V in the “maximum performance” mode. The module comes in a 12x16x2.4-millimeter package and employs u-blox’s SuperSense acquisition and tracking technology with a reported reacquisition and tracking sensitivity down to –160 dBm. Cold-start acquisition sensitivity is -143 dBm with a time to first fix of 32 seconds. The ROM-based architecture does not require an external Flash EPROM, making them suitable for high-volume consumer products. Like all of u-blox’ modules, the new NEO 5D and NEO 5G support u-blox’ AssistNow, the freely available service that reduces the time-to-first-fix to one second by providing satellite ephemeris and almanac position data, as well as accurate time and other satellite information over a mobile network, according to the company. u-blox, Thalwil, Switzerland.
• 121 • GNSS Software
OnPOZ Precision Positioning (a division of VGI Solutions) offers a new EZSurv GNSS Post-Processing version that offers full compatibility with GLONASS satellite signals. According to the company, EZSurv is compatible with most of the raw GNSS data formats on the market. The software computes high-accuracy geodetic results, enabling seamless data postprocessing among different brands of GNSS receivers using the following surveying modes: static, rapid static, stop and go, kinematic, semi-kinematic, and on-the-fly (OTF) for single and dual frequency receivers. The software incorporates tools tools for quality control, including editing of GNSS data file properties, graphical representations of phase or code residuals, graphical tools to help analyze cycle-slip occurrences in data, loop closure utilities creating networks of baselines, common vector analysis, and least squares adjustment of network baselines. All processing is fully automated, according to the company, and baseline and trajectory computation can be launched in batch mode (as many baselines and trajectories as desired). EZSurv can also be used as a companion software for high-precision GNSS OEM receivers. VGI Solutions, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
• 120 • GNSS Simulators
GPS Creations offers the GPS SIM14, an L1/L2 GPS constellation simulator available in either C/A code–only or C/A-code and P-code configurations, which can simulate up to 14 satellites simultaneously. The simulator can be integrated with a multi-function feature card (MFI/O) to provide extended capabilities such as IMU, automotive, and factory test & timing. An adjustable RF power output has a dynamic range of 66 dB. The system can simulate spacecraft velocities and re-entry vehicles and may be operated by remote control via GPIB, Ethernet, ScramNet, or RS232 connections, according to the company.
• 119 • GNSS Receivers
Magellan has introduced its MB 500 OEM GNSS receiver board with GPS+GLONASS+SBAS dual-frequency, real-time kinematic (RTK) capability. Offering 75 channels, the receiver can track the following signals: GPS L1 C/A, L1/L2 P-code, L1/L2 full wavelength carrier; GLONASS L1 C/A, L2 P-code, L1/L2 full wavelength carrier; and satellite-based augmentation systems code & carrier (WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS). The MB 500 offers the following outputs: up to 20 Hz real-time GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS raw data output (code and carrier) and positioning; real-time GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS subframes; ephemeris and almanac for GPS, GLONASS, and SBAS and ionosphere data; NMEA0183 messages (ALM, GGA, GLL, GRS, GSA, GST, GSV, RMC, VTG, ZDA). The board measures100 x 80 x 13 millimeters (3.9 x 3.1 x 0.5 inches) and weighs 61 grams (2.18 ounces). Power consumption is 2.5 Watts (typical GPS+GLONASS at 10 Hz) with input voltage ranging from 3.3 to 9V DC. The MB 500 has embedded BLADE technology, Magellan’s proprietary, multi-GNSS RTK and differential GNSS engine.
• 118 • Antennas
PCTEL offers the GPSL1GL-TMG-40N timing reference antenna specifically designed for deployments in congested cell-site applications and able to receive signals from GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS satellites in the 1575.42 ± 10 MHz and 1602-1615 MHz frequency bands. The low-noise, high-gain amplifier is well suited to address attenuation issues associated with applications requiring longer cable runs. The proprietary quadrifiliar helix design, coupled with multistage filtering improves out-of-band rejection and lower elevation pattern performance. The GPSL1GL-TMG-40N weighs 0.75 lbs (0.34 kg), measures 7.25 inches in height x 3.2 inches in diameter (184 x 81 millimeters), and operates on power supplies ranging from 3.3-9.0 V. The antenna provides integrated lightning protection capability and features electrostatic discharge (ESD) and reverse polarity protection as well as transit voltage suppression.
• 116 • Antennas
Wi-Sys Communications offers its WS1551QF L-band + GPS (L1) Quadrifilar Helical Antenna. An active right-hand circularly polarized, quadrifilar helical antenna, the WS1551QF provides an omni-directional, cardoid radiation pattern, with peak gain optimized at elevation angles between 0° and 40°. The wideband antenna covers both the L-band downlink frequency band (1525 to 1560 MHz) and the GPS (L1) frequency band (1574 to 1576 MHz). The antenna features a precisely tuned quadrifilar antenna element, 15KV ESD circuit protection, a high gain two-stage low-noise (1 dB) amplifier (LNA), and a ceramic filter housed in a weather-proof, industrial grade enclosure with a bulkhead TNC jack connector.
• 117 • GNSS Receivers
L-3 Interstate Electronics Corporation (IEC), based in Anaheim, California, The miniaturized the TruTrak Evolution GPS receiver from L-3 Interstate Electronics is a single-board, L1/L2 24-channel secure GPS receiver, measuring 1.8 x 2.0 x 0.4 inches. It consists of a security module, radio frequency down converter, and I/O logic. The receiver employs IEC’s latest key data processor (KDP II) SAASM chipset in the XFACTOR module to provide enhanced GPS security and processes the GPS L1 C/A, L1 and L2 P(Y) code signals with a time to first fix of less than 6 seconds, Direct-Y acquisition hot start (no jamming), according to the company. Reported accuracy is 3 meters (1 sigma) pseudorange, 0.025 meter (1s) delta range, with a 20,000-G gun shock survivability. The receiver design provides a direct path to M-code, has 8 serial RS-422 ports and 32 programmable I/O discretes, and a 3.2 to 3.6V operating voltage.
• 115 • Integrated Technology
NovAtel, Inc., has announced its new flagship GNSS + INS receiver, the SPAN-SE. NovAtel’s SPAN (Synchronous Position, Attitude and Navigation)
• 114 • GNSS Simulators
National Instruments offers the NI GPS Toolkit for LabVIEW, an extension of the graphical system design environment that expands the NI RF PXI platform to include multi-satellite GPS signal simulation. Using NI LabVIEW software to create waveforms that simulate up to 12 satellites (C/A codes in the L1 band), engineers can test receiver characteristics such as sensitivity, time to first fix (TTFF) and position accuracy with the NI PXIe-5672 RF vector signal generator. With the new toolkit, engineers can use a combination of simulated and recorded GPS waveforms for receiver design validation and verification. By recording live GPS signals off the air with an NI PXI-5661 RF vector signal analyzer and an NI PXI-5690 pre-amplifier (low-noise amplifier), engineers can capture GPS signals with natural impairments that a receiver would observe in the real world.
• 113 • GNSS-Related Hardware
Raven Industries offers the GPS FiberLink, a fiber-optic cable designed to pass GPS L1/L2 frequencies over distances up to 610 meters (2,000 feet). According to the company, the product will accommodate future expansions of GPS signals, given its coverage of frequencies ranging from 800 MHz up to 1800 MHz, while provide protection from lightning strikes. The unit will operate on 12V to 36V AC or DC power sources.
• 112 • GNSS Chipsets
Atheros Communications offers the AR1511, a 44-channel GPS receiver-on-chip solution, consisting of the CMOS AR1511 GPS IC teamed with the ORION v3.0 multi-mode navigation software. It is comprised of a single-conversion RF front-end and a GPS baseband processor combined on a single die. The L1 RF front-end includes an on-chip low noise amplifier (LNA), and a configurable phase-locked loop (PLL) that supports six (6) TCXO frequencies. Based on an optimized 16-bit DSP with a compact, embedded real-time operating system (RTOS), the SBAS-capable (WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS) unit features eight independent search engines for simultaneous search and 12 tracking channels. The ORION v3.0 is a GPS navigation software package that supports hosted, autonomous, assisted-conventional, and single-fix assisted-GPS (AGPS) modes using advanced acquisition algorithms to find weak GPS signals by utilizing the company’s patent-pending third-generation search engine, enabling parallel searches and advanced tracking loops. For standalone mode, customers can now use Atheros’ new stacked flash packaging, enabling efficient use of board space while minimizing integration efforts. In the host-based configuration, the ORION v3.0 software has been designed to minimize burden on the host processor.
• 111 • Antennas
NovAtel introduces its GNSS-750 choke ring antenna with a 3D design that enables low-level elevation tracking and the ability to track satellites as soon as they are visible, down to the horizon and even below. It incorporates an ultra-wideband Dorne-Margolin element and has optimized antenna gain so it can be used with most manufacturers’ geodetic receivers. The GNSS-750 tracks all four GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass) and their signals, including SBAS and L-Band signals for differential services. The unit measures 380 mm x 200 millimeters and weighs 7.6 kilograms. Power Input Voltage is from 3.3 to 12 VDC and has a nominal impedance of 50 ohms.
• 110 • Components
The IT2200B is part of the Rakon Integrated 2200 series of surface mount device (SMD) temperature compensated crystal oscillators (TCXOs), which can be used to aid GPS weak signal detection in portable devices. Measuring 2.5 x 2.0 millimeters, the IT2200B employs an analog integrated circuit for the oscillator and temperature compensation. The RSX-10 crystal is surface mounted on top of the ceramic IC carrier. The segregation of the crystal from the oscillator further improves the reliability of the product. Frequencies ranging from 10 to 45 MHz. Standard temperature stability choices are ±0.5ppm, ±1ppm, ±1.5ppm, and ±2.5ppm, over wide temperature ranges. The TCXO provides clipped sinewave frequency output from 10 to 45MHz. Frequency slope and perturbation specifications can be customized to meet application requirements. Rakon Limited, Auckland, New Zealand.